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Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes.
There are seven main types of botulinum toxin, named type A–G. New types are occasionally found. Types A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms.
Botulinum toxin injected in human face
In cosmetic applications, botulinum toxin is considered safe and effective for reduction of facial wrinkles, especially in the uppermost third of the face. Commercial forms are marketed under the brand names Botox Cosmetic/Vistabel from Allergan, Dysport/Azzalure from Galderma and Ipsen, Xeomin/Bocouture from Merz, and in the US only, Jeuveau from Evolus, manufactured by Daewoong. The effects of current botulinum toxin injections for glabellar lines (’11’s lines’ between the eyes) typically last two to four months and in some cases, product-dependent, with some patients experiencing a longer duration of effect. Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. Smoothing of wrinkles is usually visible three-five days after injection, with maximum effect typically a week following injection. Muscles can be treated repeatedly to maintain the smoothed appearance.